Thermography, when used in a clinical setting, is a non-invasive procedure that detects, records, and produces an image (thermogram) of a patient's skin surface temperatures and/or thermal patterns.
Information on thermal imaging has been provided by the New Zealand Breast Thermography Association - www.nzbta.org.nz
An up to date, comprehensive resource with links to 51 articles and research papers looking at the effectiveness of breast thermography in a clinical setting is listed below:
1. Gautherie M. Thermopathology of breast cancer: measurement and analysis of in vivo temperature and blood flow. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1980;335:383-415.
2. Gautherie M. Thermobiological assessment of benign and malignant breast diseases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Dec 15 1983;147(8):861-869.
3. Lin QY, Yang HQ, Xie SS, Wang YH, Ye Z, Chen SQ. Detecting early breast tumour by finite element thermal analysis. J Med Eng Technol. 2009;33(4):274-280.
4. Lawson RN, Chughtai MS. Breast Cancer and Body Temperature. Can Med Assoc J. Jan 12 1963;88(2):68-70.
5. Plotnikoff G, Carolyn T. Emerging controversies in breast imaging: is there a place for thermography? Minn Med. Dec 2009;92(12):37-39, 56.
6. Keyserlingk JR, Ahlgren PD, Yu E, Belliveau N, Yassa M. Functional infrared imaging of the breast. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. May-Jun 2000;19(3):30-41.
7. Haberman JD. The present status of mammary thermography. CA Cancer J Clin. Nov-Dec 1968;18(6):315-321.
8. Isard HJ, Becker W, Shilo R, Ostrum BJ. Breast thermography after four years and 10000 studies. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. Aug 1972;115(4):811-821.
9. Jones CH. Thermography of the female breast. In: Parsons CA (Ed): Diagnosis of breast disease. Baltimore: University Park Press; 1983.
10. Keith LG, Oleszczuk JJ, Laguens M. Are mammography and palpation sufficient for breast cancer screening? A dissenting opinion. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. Jan-Feb 2002;11(1):17-25.
11. Report of the Working Group to Review the National Cancer Institute-American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Projects. J Natl Cancer Inst. Mar 1979;62(3):639-709.
12. Baker LH. Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project: five-year summary report. CA Cancer J Clin. Jul-Aug 1982;32(4):194-225.
13. Isard HJ, Sweitzer CJ, Edelstein GR. Breast thermography. A prognostic indicator for breast cancer survival. Cancer. Aug 1 1988;62(3):484-488.
14. Lapayowker MS, Revesz G. Thermography and ultrasound in detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Cancer. Aug 15 1980;46(4 Suppl):933-938.
15. NIH/NCI Consensus Development Meeting on breast cancer screening. Issues and recommendations. Yale J Biol Med. Jan-Feb 1978;51(1):3-7.
16. Head JF, Wang F, Lipari CA, Elliott RL. The important role of infrared imaging in breast cancer. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. May-Jun 2000;19(3):52-57.
17. Arora N, Martins D, Ruggerio D, et al. Effectiveness of a noninvasive digital infrared thermal imaging system in the detection of breast cancer. Am J Surg. Oct 2008;196(4):523-526.
18. Kennedy DA, Lee T, Seely D. A comparative review of thermography as a breast cancer screening technique. Integr Cancer Ther. Mar 2009;8(1):9-16.
19. Gonzalez FJ. Infrared imager requirements for breast cancer detection. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:3312-3314.
20. Head JF, Elliott RL. Infrared imaging: making progress in fulfilling its medical promise. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. Nov-Dec 2002;21(6):80-85.
21. Mikulska D. [Contemporary applications of infrared imaging in medical diagnostics]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2006;52(1):35-39; discussion 39-40.
22. Ng EY, Ung LN, Ng FC, Sim LS. Statistical analysis of healthy and malignant breast thermography. J Med Eng Technol. Nov-Dec 2001;25(6):253-263.
23. Joro R, Laaperi AL, Dastidar P, et al. Imaging of breast cancer with mid- and long-wave infrared camera. J Med Eng Technol. May-Jun 2008;32(3):189-197.
24. Isard HJ. Other imaging techniques. Cancer. Feb 1 1984;53(3 Suppl):658-664.
25. Salhab M, Keith LG, Laguens M, Reeves W, Mokbel K. The potential role of dynamic thermal analysis in breast cancer detection. Int Semin Surg Oncol. 2006;3:8.
26. Mital M, Scott EP. Thermal detection of embedded tumors using infrared imaging. J Biomech Eng. Feb 2007;129(1):33-39.
27. Gautherie M, Gros CM. Breast thermography and cancer risk prediction. Cancer. Jan 1 1980;45(1):51-56.
28. Jones CH, Greening WP, Davey JB, McKinna JA, Greeves VJ. Thermography of the female breast: a five-year study in relation to the detection and prognosis of cancer. Br J Radiol. Jul 1975;48(571):532-538.
29. Ng EY, Kee EC. Advanced integrated technique in breast cancer thermography. J Med Eng Technol. Mar-Apr 2008;32(2):103-114.
30. Stark AM. The value of risk factors in screening for breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol. Jun 1985;11(2):147-150.
31. Amalu WC. Nondestructive testing of the human breast: the validity of dynamic stress testing in medical infrared breast imaging. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004;2:1174-1177.
32. Gotzsche PC, Nielsen M. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006(4):CD001877.
33. de Thibault de Boesinghe L. The value of thermography for the diagnosis, prognosis and surveillance of non-palpable breast cancer. J Belge Radiol. Oct 1990;73(5):375-378.
34. Feig SA, Shaber GS, Schwartz GF, et al. Thermography, mammography, and clinical examination in breast cancer screening. Review of 16,000 studies. Radiology. Jan 1977;122(1):123-127.
35. Ohsumi S, Takashima S, Aogi K, Usuki H. Prognostic value of thermographical findings in patients with primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. Jun 2002;74(3):213-220.
36. Kerr J. Review of the effectiveness of infrared thermal imaging (thermography) for population screening and diagnostic testing of breast cancer. New Zealand Health Technology Assessment (NZHTA) Tech Brief Series. Volume 3, Number 3, 2004.
37. Agnese DM. Advances in breast imaging. Surg Technol Int. 2005;14:51-56.
38. Ng EY, Sudharsan NM. Computer simulation in conjunction with medical thermography as an adjunct tool for early detection of breast cancer. BMC Cancer. Apr 28 2004;4:17.
39. Gautherie M, Haehnel P, Walter JP, Keith LG. Thermovascular changes associated with in situ and minimal breast cancers. Results of an ongoing prospective study after four years. J Reprod Med. Nov 1987;32(11):833-842.
40. Head JF, Wang F, Elliott RL. Breast thermography is a noninvasive prognostic procedure that predicts tumor growth rate in breast cancer patients. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Nov 30 1993;698:153-158
41. Dumitrescu RG, Cotarla I. Understanding breast cancer risk -- where do we stand in 2005? J Cell Mol Med. Jan-Mar 2005;9(1):208-221.
42. Gros C, Gautherie M, Bourjat P. Prognosis and post-therapeutic follow-up of breast cancers by thermography. Bibl Radiol. 1975(6):77-90.
43. Ikeda T, Abe O, Enomoto K, Kikuchi K, Fujiwara K. [Contact thermography as a prognostic indicator of breast cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. May 1989;16(5):2103-2108.
44. Ciatto S, Palli D, Rosselli del Turco M, Catarzi S. Diagnostic and prognostic role of infrared thermography. Radiol Med. Oct 1987;74(4):312-315.
45. Mustacchi G, Milani S, Sandri P, et al. Telethermography and axillary node status as predictors of early relapse in breast cancer: preliminary report. Tumori. Oct 31 1984;70(5):455-458.
46. Sterns EE, Zee B, SenGupta S, Saunders FW. Thermography. Its relation to pathologic characteristics, vascularity, proliferation rate, and survival of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Cancer. Apr 1 1996;77(7):1324-1328.
47. Sterns EE, Zee B. Thermography as a predictor of prognosis in cancer of the breast. Cancer. Mar 15 1991;67(6):1678-1680.
48. Head JF, Elliott RL. Thermography. Its relation to pathologic characteristics, vascularity, proliferation rate, and survival of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Cancer. Jan 1 1997;79(1):186-188.
49. von Fournier D, Weber E, Hoeffken W, Bauer M, Kubli F, Barth V. Growth rate of 147 mammary carcinomas. Cancer. Apr 15 1980;45(8):2198-2207.
50. Stark AM, Way S. The screening of well women for the early detection of breast cancer using clinical examination with thermography and mammography. Cancer. Jun 1974;33(6):1671-1679.
51. Nyirjesy I, Billingsley FS. Detection of breast carcinoma in a gynecologic practice. Obstet Gynecol. Dec 1984;64(6):747-751.
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